In the current unpredictable world, opportunities and crises have been succeeding each other faster in recent years. They have become commonplace and they are largely determining our daily lives. Turbulence and non-stability becomes the standard. Both moment and momentum of opportunities and crises, however, are difficult to predict.

Due to the multiplicity and ambiguity of phenomena and issues in a turbulent and complex world, there is an increasing need for leadership to deal with this. Leaders who are able to deal with unpredictable situations that cannot be described in advance in protocols and plans, while their hands are tied by formal regulations, protocols and the allocation of authorisations and competences.

Leadership must be able to deal with sudden, unexpected, unforeseeable events that can affect the organisation totally in a short time. When the future cannot be predicted based on past trends, both opportunities and situations need to be addressed as they develop. This requires a specific mindset from leaders and their staff in which all of them have to take responsibility and show leadership.

The larger the complexity, the less can be relied on past experiences. Necessary and appropriate leadership must be shown together as much as possible by leaders and their staff. A shift from emphasising on vertical structures to focusing on a more horizontal approach. This implies a changing role for the leaders, focusing on strategy, structures, rules and systems in the past to emphasising on intent, goals, people and trust now and in the future.